Amara West project blog

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Investigating life in an Egyptian town

Amara West 2015, week 2: pyramid(s), garden plots, old fish and farming


Neal Spencer (Keeper, Ancient Egypt & Sudan, British Museum) and Michaela Binder (bioarchaeologist)

Each breakfast is accompanied by a threat that samak qadim (‘ancient fish’) will be amongst the dishes brought to site by our workers, from houses across Ernetta. Referring to tarkin, the local speciality of preserved fish worked into a paste and then mixed with the wheat pancakes (gurassa), it is a delicacy that is, at best, an acquired taste.

The corridor around house D11.1

The corridor around house D11.1

Amara West countered with its own samak qadim, during our second week of excavations, in the shape of an intact dried out spiny fish, sitting in an ancient deposit just outside house D11.2. While identification of species will await analyses by a specialist, Manuela Lehmann’s excavations in this space are interesting for many other reasons. This is the only house that is set within a walled compound, creating an L-shaped perimeter around the house proper. For what purpose? Privacy, increased protection from the sand, or simply a place to locate messy, dirty activities?

Fragile remnants of small garden plots

Fragile remnants of small garden plots

Excavations are ongoing, but patches of ash, a plastered basin, and some dividing walls suggest this might have been a busy space, probably not roofed. On the western side, very damaged remains of garden plots have started to appear – hinting at what lay beyond the town walls before the suburb was created. The southern part of the house continues to be excavated by Sarah Hitchens: we are now largely past the last structures inserted into the rooms, and revealing earlier floors.

The Big Pit, with architectural fragments at the base

The Big Pit, with architectural fragments at the base

Over in house D12.8, Matt Williams oversaw the emptying of the Big Pit. While not a favourite task for our workmen – who move between areas depending on the requirements of work each day – the pit has proved immensely instructive. While obliterating the southeastern room of the house, it clearly illustrated the sequence of house building in this corner of the suburb – D12.7, then D12.8, then D12.9 – as this neighbourhood became more densely occupied.

The room with column base at the front of house D12.8

The room with column base at the front of house D12.8

Out the front of house D12.8, Agnieszka Trambowicz revealed a large space with a stone column base at its centre. An unusually ostentatious entrance area for a house, as most dwellings here had simple open and/or unroofed spaces, often with food processing facilities.

Painted architecture from house D12.8 (F14039)

Painted architecture from house D12.8 (F14039)

A doorjamb from rubble further back in the house hints at the bursts of colour that once lifted the brown mud colour that predominates today. The arrival of Kate Fulcher is already prodcucing exciting results on colour – more on that soon! On the other side of the pit, Matt has been investigating a small 3 (or 4?) roomed house tucked off an alleyway, set against the western wall of villa D12.5. Dense layers of roof collapse in the middle room are still being investigated.

Earlier this week we posted images of Anna Stevens excavating the three-room house D11.2, built against the north wall of D11.1. A modest house, it is currently reminiscent of an archaeology textbook: roofing collapse in the first room, clean wind-blown sand in the second room (where ancient pots look like they were knocked off their stands just yesterday) and a surface of dirt and trampled sherds in the backroom. The coming weeks will hopefully hint at why the back room, in such a small house, was blocked up and plastered shut.

D12.12: a room with brick rubble - and stacked bricks

D12.12: a room with brick rubble – and stacked bricks

In the southeast part of the suburb, David Fallon is overseeing excavation of a building that continues to perplex us: a room without access from the others, another with bricks neatly stacked, and a dense concentration of dung-like material in one corner.

Mat Dalton, studying floors revealed by a pit (house D12.8)

Mat Dalton, studying floors revealed by a pit (house D12.8)

Amongst all these excavations, floors are revealed on an almost daily basis, in different rooms. Where there’s a floor, Mat Dalton is not far behind, recording in minute detail aspects of the surfaces before they are eroded or wind-scoured, and then taking samples for thin section laboratory analysis, which can reveal replastering episodes, different construction techniques and sometimes the presence of plants or waste matter.

Area E13.17 in the walled town: ash, more ash and kilns

Area E13.17 in the walled town: ash, more ash and kilns

Johannes Auenmüller and Tom Lyons continue peeling back layers of ancient activity in area E13. Referring to their area as the ‘city centre’ (distinct from our suburban archaeologists!) – the nature of the architecture, and especially the continual refurbishment of spaces with extremely hard mud floors, suggests these were structures other than houses. In the western part, Tom has worked through thick deposits of ash surrounding ovens, and is turning up slag suggestive of industrial activity. The most exciting find of the week was a small clay lump bearing a stamp seal-impression. Above a depiction of pharaoh subjugating a Nubian were the cartouches of Ramses III, consistent with our working hypotheses for the dating of this phase of architecture.

Base from a faience shabti, with name of a man ending '-ser' (F8465)

Base from a faience shabti, with name of a man ending ‘-ser’ (F8465)

The first week of cemetery excavations produced a flurry of excitement. Two substantial funerary structures were partly exposed, larger than any others found at Amara West so far. Michelle Gamble is working in tomb G320, a somewhat difficult undertaking, as the walls of the superstructure are heavily deflated, reduced to only traces of bricks. In addition, several robber cuts indicate heavy looting. Nevertheless, the dimensions of the structure, and its location, hint at the burial of someone of importance. The base of a faience shabti was recovered from the disturbed spoil around the destroyed tomb, bearing a name ending ‘-ser’. Given a Deputy of Kush named Pa-ser is known from inscriptions in the town, some Egyptological speculation as to who was buried here has been inevitable here in the dig house!

G321: pyramid and chapel in cemetery D

G321: pyramid and chapel in cemetery D

Immediately to the west, Michaela and Sofie Schiodt have already exposed the remarkably well preserved superstructure of G321, With a T-shaped funerary chapel and a large pyramid with a side length of 8m. It is the only one of its kind at Amara West, yet parallels similar structures at other New Kingdom Nubian sites such as Tombos, Soleb and Aniba. Over the next week we will start working on the interior of the chapel and excavate the shaft. A complete vessel deposited in the western corner suggests an intact chapel floor: offering potential for insights into the funerary rituals once performed here.

Philippa in the fields on the south side of Ernetta island

Philippa in the fields on the south side of Ernetta island

Alongside Tomomi’s work with the local community, Katherine Homewood and Philippa Ryan commenced work this week, to explore plant subsistence strategies in Ernetta and the surrounding area. The last few days have been taken up with meeting farmers, studying plants being grown on different types of land, such as that inundated by the river or the areas of higher, artificially irrigated, ground. Another stream of research is around the crops grown for market or for domestic consumption.

Back at the house, Hilary Stewart has completed registration of the 2014 finds, and is deeply ensconced in grindstones, quartz lumps (and the odd fertility figurine) from this season’s excavations. Alice Salvador is drawing pottery from tomb G244 and illustrating new finds, while Shadia Abdu Rabo is working on the small fired clay objects we think are associated with fishing. Meanwhile, Anna Garnett and Siobhann Shinn are usually to be found amongst sacks of pottery …

It became hot this week, with little wind. The swarms of nimiti-flies have not really arrived, but reports from our colleagues on other excavation projects upstream in Sai and Sedienga suggest trouble is imminent…

Ghazafi Mohamed, one of our veteran excavators, approves of progress in building D12.12

Ghazafi Mohamed, one of our veteran excavators, approves of progress in building D12.12

Alongside regular updates on the blog, follow the season on Twitter: @NealSpencer_BM and #amarawest

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Amara West 2015, anthropology, archaeology, funerary, Modern Amara, New Kingdom, Nubian, objects, pottery, settlement

Amara West 2015: Stories, memories and archaeology


Tomomi Fushiya, archaeologist

For our excavations and research in Amara West, local community members’ support is essential. While we chat with workers throughout the working day, often share breakfast and commute by boat between the site and Ernetta island where most workmen are from and the mission house is located, we don’t often hear what they think about their work, the site: What stories they have heard about Amara West? Do they come to visit the site apart from their excavation work? What do they know about our work or archaeology? Are archaeological sites considered a part of Nubian heritage – even a pharaonic town, like Amara West?

This season we began interviews with our workmen, and other local community members in Ernetta island and Abri, to listen to and record their stories, memories and views on the history, archaeology and heritage of Nubia. Here, I would like to share some of their narratives of Amara West – locally called Abkenissa or Birbe – to see the place from their perspectives.

Mohamed Ali Gindi
‘The trip name was rihera ila abkanissa (a trip to Abkenissa)’, Mohamed Ali Gindi, one of our workmen from Ernetta island, recalls. He visited Amara West for the first time in 1967, as a part of a history class in primary school. ‘The teacher took all students and made a trip to Amara West from our school in Amara East. ‘We used an old boat and visited the site… when we reached the site the teacher described the site and told them Christian was there… A king or head of Christian was in this place.’ He smiled and said ‘that is why it’s called Abkenissa’ – kenissa means church. The site was thought to be Christian, its pharaonic history unknown. The education curriculum has changed since and no school trips come to Amara West or other local sites.

We thought local people rarely visit the site, other than to work nearby farms or tend sheep and goats. But workmen, especially the younger ones, say that people from Ernetta come to Abkenissa for festivities such as weddings, the Eid (Islamic festivals) and national holidays, often bringing a sheep or goat to sacrifice, or a simple picnic with tea and biscuits.

Mubashr
Mubashr Salah Mohamed, who likes to listen to old men talking about heritage, told me that Abkenissa was believed to have a healing power. ‘In the past, people came here and they covered themselves … in a warm sand … Some diseases are treated by this … putting on their arms, sometimes their bodies. Dig a hole in sand … to be better from rheumatism or for some other diseases…’

We are not sure where exactly they practised this on the site, but we know now from time to time local people have made a visit to Amara West. More stories will emerge as we continue conversations in Amara West and Ernetta.


*Mohamed and Mubashr agreed to have their thoughts published.

Alongside regular updates on the blog, follow the season on Twitter: @NealSpencer_BM and #amarawest

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Amara West 2015, anthropology, Modern Amara, Nubian traditions

Amara West 2015: the last days of house D11.2


Anna Stevens, Amara West Project Curator

Nubian and Egyptian pots in D11.2
When the occupants of house D11.2 in the western suburb abandoned Amara West they left a number of intact pottery vessels sitting on the floor of their small house. Most were Egyptian in style – including the very large bowl and unusual handled jar seen here – but note also the Nubian cooking pot with burnt surface in the lower part of the photo.

Trampled surface in back room
We often find that the back rooms of the houses at Amara West gradually collected dust, potsherds and other debris swept in from other parts of the house. House D11.2 provides a nice example of this: a rough dusty deposit into which potsherds have been trampled flat. At some stage, the entrance to this back room was blocked, leaving it unused as life went on in the front of the house.

Excavating pots in D11.2
After house D11.2 was abandoned, windblown sand collected over the floors and the walls and roof eventually crumbled and fell, sealing the pots below. Anna Garnett, our ceramicist, and I worked at revealing the pots, which will later be lifted and, where possible, repaired ahead of further study.

Alongside regular updates on the blog, follow the season on Twitter: @NealSpencer_BM and #amarawest

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Amara West 2015, archaeology, New Kingdom, Nubian, Nubian traditions, pottery, settlement, Uncategorized

Amara West 2015: a pyramid edge and its chapel emerges

Michaela Binder, bioarchaeologist

A pyramid and chapel emerges

A successful first day of excavation in G321! On the hottest day of the season so far, Sofie exposes the well-preserved southern wall of a mud-brick funerary chapel. Visible to her right, the first sections of the pyramid base provide a hint of the relative grandeur of this funerary monument – many times larger than all other pyramids known at Amara West.

Alongside regular updates on the blog, follow the season on Twitter: @NealSpencer_BM and #amarawest

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Amara West 2015, archaeology, funerary, New Kingdom

Amara West 2015: let’s dig some pyramids


Michaela Binder, bioarchaeologist

With a delay of two weeks (due to my PhD graduation!), we have joined the rest of the team at Amara West, and the cemetery season has just begun. After a break of two years, we return to Cemetery D, the area located on a rocky desert escarpment north of the town, for two full months of fieldwork. During the 2010 and 2012 seasons, we were already able to establish the presence of a New Kingdom elite burial ground in the western part of the escarpment, together with graves dating to the Kerma period but also the centuries following the New Kingdom.

Pyramid tomb G309, excavated in 2012

Pyramid tomb G309, excavated in 2012

Nevertheless, the number of tombs, both elite and non-elite, dating to the New Kingdom period is overall relatively small given the size of the settlement and duration of its existence (over 200 years, from 1300 BC).

Geophysical survey showing location of G320 and G321 (in collaboration with the University of Southamption - British School in Rome)

Geophysical survey showing location of G320 and G321 (University of Southamption – British School in Rome)

The choice of area to be investigated by the team of four experienced bioarchaeologists – I’m joined by returnee Sofie Schiodt from the University of Copenhagen, freelancer Michelle Gamble, and Mohamed Saad from Sudan’s National Corporation of Antiquities and Museums – was prompted by the geomagnetic survey carried by out by a team from the University of Southampton/British School in Rome last year. The area, of 60×90 meters, seems to include three substantial tombs with similar superstructures to the tombs excavated during previous season. Most likely constructed from mudbrick, these structures comprise a rectangular chapel and a pyramid on their western side.

The somewhat unassuming heaps of rubble overlying G321, at dawn of the first day of excavation

The somewhat unassuming heaps of rubble overlying G321, at dawn of the first day of excavation

The survey gives us high hopes for what awaits us this season. G321, the eastern-most funerary monument in cemetery D, appears to be by far the largest tomb structure known at Amara West. Situated on the highest point of the cemetery with a good view over the town, this location would have been the most prominent and therefore desirable place for burial. Huge spoil heaps on the surface hint towards an equally large substructure. The next days will be busy with removing these mounds: we can´t wait to see what lies underneath.

Immediately to the west, Michelle has started to uncover another large tomb, G320. While it´s superstructure is less obvious in the survey than that of G321, large heaps of schist rubble again indicate another sizable structure. After a first half day of clearance, the workmen have already started hitting fragments of mudbrick. Whether we are dealing with another pyramid tomb will soon become clear.

And so the cemetery excavations begin…

And so the cemetery excavations begin…

Alongside regular updates on the blog, follow the season on Twitter: @NealSpencer_BM and #amarawest

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Amara West 2015, archaeology, funerary, New Kingdom, survey

Amara West 2015 (week 1): painted bone, a house revealed and … ovens


Neal Spencer, Keeper, Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan

A long seven-day excavation week has just drawn to a close at Amara West, characterised by strong winds and very chilly temperatures. The first week of a field season is really about getting a feel for the work, even after 6 years at the same site: both the team of specialists and our local workmen feature a mixture of veterans (no matter their age) and new arrivals.

The pace of work differs across Amara West, depending on the archaeological remains, but also their position on the site, which effects how much wind and airborne sand we have to deal with – both during excavation, and when returning the day after a windy night to find rooms filled with sand.

Excavating in house D12.8

Excavating in house D12.8

Within a few days, we started to understand more about house D12.8, through the excavations of Matt Williams and Agnieszka Trambowicz. It is now clear that the rooms to the west, which I had designated part of another house, represent an extension to the original house. Matt has exposed much of the rear suite of rooms: a typical almost-square space with mastaba-bench on the rear wall, flanked by side rooms (one obliterated by a big pit), with a wide room before it. The square room yielded the jar with the animal depiction. Out front, Agnieszka has encountered a series of later walls and blockings within a large space (courtyard?), and is just starting to dig a room full of ash, containing at least two ovens.

An enigmatic feature in house D11.1. Note the well-preserved surface, but also the gap, not big enougt to walk through.

An enigmatic feature in house D11.1. Note the well-preserved surface, but also the gap, not big enougt to walk through.

To the southwest, the large house D11.1 seemed fairly typical in plan, from what was visible on the surface. What surprised us here was encountering installations, rather than rubble and wind-blown sand, so close to the surface in each rooms, without the usual layers of windblown sand. This is proving challenging as the wind scours any surface we expose. At the front (south) of the building, Sarah Hitchens has exposed ashy surfaces (more ovens on the way?!) with the room behind hosting a strange curving feature, with a nice surface inside and around it, against one wall.

Manuela lifting the painted bone object

Manuela lifting the painted bone object

Manuela Lehmann has been excavating the back of the house – again with a square room accompanied by two side rooms. There’s absolutely no sign of a mastaba here, but that absence was made up for by our most unusual object of the season so far. A piece of bone, presumed to be animal, decorated on the upper surface with a series of fine red lines. Thanks to some long-distance advice from British Museum conservator Philip Kevin, we managed to consolidate this incredibly fragile piece in situ, and lift the object whole. It now sits in the expedition house awaiting cleaning by another British Museum conservator, Maickel van Bellegem, who joins us in February. Only then can we start to document and study the object properly, and thereafter try and understand it.

A small oven set in the corner of an alley outside house D12.12

There’s much more going on in the western suburb. David Fallon is working through rubble layers in a building (D12.12) south of the house he excavated last year, while revealing a small oven set up in an alleyway between the two houses. Mat Dalton is back in house D12.7, where the small suite of two rooms with ovens has turned out to contain yet more, earlier, ovens. Again we are able to track small changes and refurbishments made in individual houses.

Fouad Ali Gindi, one of our veteran workers (and oven specialist) in house D12.7

Fouad Ali Gindi, one of our veteran workers (and oven specialist), in house D12.7

Back inside the walled town, we are seeking to finish excavations in neighbourhood E13. We’re not excavating houses here, but rather an area given over to ovens and/or kilns, perhaps a courtyard.

A sequence of kilns or ovens in a courtyard inside the walled town

A sequence of kilns or ovens in a courtyard inside the walled town

Tom Lyons has been busy excavating, recording and dismantling one sequence of ovens, while Johannes Auenmüller finished the week revealing a nice layer of architecture. In both areas we hope to reach the earliest occupation phase at Amara West, to better understand what was deemed necessary in the foundation of a new pharaonic administrative centre in Upper Nubia.

Early phase architecture within area E13

Early phase architecture within area E13

Back in the expedition house, we’re focusing on documenting objects from earlier seasons – there’s always a backlog – but new artefacts are beginning to come in. But perhaps the most thrilling part of the first week has been the enthusiasm for the Arabic edition of the Amara West book, which we are distributing to local communities, starting with our workmen and neighbours.

Early evening reading the Amara West book on the mastaba outside an Ernetta island house

Early evening reading the Amara West book on the mastaba outside an Ernetta island house

Alongside regular updates on the blog, follow the season on Twitter: @NealSpencer_BM and #amarawest

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Amara West 2015, archaeology, conservation, New Kingdom, objects, settlement

Amara West 2015: ceramics and an enigmatic beast


Anna Garnett, Assistant Project Curator, British Museum

Blue box inbox
One of our blue crates is put to use as an inbox for excavators to drop bags off after a day digging – I discuss with them the nature of the deposit, any finds that are associated with the ceramics, and how one particular context links with others in the same room. All of this information helps me to establish how the pottery was used by the ancient inhabitants of Amara West.

Sorting pottery
The pottery from each context undergoes an initial sift in order to separate rims, bases, handles, and particular fabrics such as sherds from handmade Nubian vessels. Siobhan Shinn has joined me this season to assist with the sorting of the pottery – here using a toothbrush to clean a potentially interesting sherd.

Ali Jellal
The diagnostic sherds – thousands of them over a season – are all washed and dried by Ali Jellal who has worked with us for several years.

An unusual potmark
The majority of the pottery corresponds directly with our established typology of Ramesside pottery from Amara West, though sometimes we get a surprise. When cleaning part of an amphora (storage vessel) from house D12.8, a pot mark emerged, made after the vessel was fired. After much discussion at the dig house, the depiction of a cow or a bull is the favourite, but we welcome any further suggestions!

Alongside regular updates on the blog, follow the season on Twitter: @NealSpencer_BM and #amarawest

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Filed under: Amara West 2015, pottery

Amara West 2015: dealing with the cold, New Kingdom-style


Mat Dalton, University of Cambridge

Building a hearth in the dig house
As part of my research into the thermal qualities of mud houses similar to those at Amara West, we are building a New Kingdom-style hearth in our dig house’s verandah, which we use as a living room. Here Johannes Auenmüller and I are starting to build with a mud mortar containing Nile silt, sand and donkey dung temper – similar to that used by local women to plaster their house floors.

Building a hearth in the dig house
The fire in the hearth is smoky at first, but once the charcoal is well alight becomes very hot with almost no smoke at all, heating the room noticeably (even though one side is open to the cold outdoors!).

Alongside regular updates on the blog, follow the season on Twitter: @NealSpencer_BM and #amarawest

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Amara West 2015, Nubian traditions

Amara West 2015: investigating ancient suburban sprawl

 Map of an ancient suburb at Amara West
Neal Spencer, Keeper of Ancient Egypt and Sudan, British Museum

As ever, this fieldwork season at Amara West will be a flurry of specialists undertaking excavations, object studies, analytical investigations, conservation of artefacts and anthropological research. A major focus of the season is the excavation of ancient housing within the town site.

Kite photograph showing sprawl of western suburb outside walled town

Kite photograph showing sprawl of western suburb outside walled town

Over the last six seasons at Amara West, we have greatly enhanced the understanding of lived experiences of ancient inhabitants in a pharaonic town in Upper Nubia. In particular, work in the northwestern corner of the walled town (our ‘area E13’) has revealed a neighbourhood created over the remains of a set of large (institutional?) storage magazines. By creating ‘biographies’ of each house, we can seek to understand how individuals or households sought to create an environment in which to live, rather than viewing the population of the town as a homogenous entity.
A sprawling western suburb was first identified through geophysical survey in 2008, and we excavated large villas in 2009 and 2013: up to 400 m² in extent, these dwarf the houses within the town walls. These houses are founded on the rubbish which must come from the earlier phases of the walled town.

What can yet more excavations tell us? These small ‘suburban houses’ – admittedly a word with too may modern connotations! – allow us to see how some inhabitants sought to create their ideal home, within the constraints of their resources. No earlier structures needed to be demolished, or repurposed, though houses were built over features that might have been small garden plots. What did people deem essential in a house? How were the houses laid out to provide convenient access (to street, walled town, fields and river) but also comfort (from wind, sun and heat)? What kind of open-air space did inhabitants seek (whether inside or outside the houses)? How did this suburb develop over time?

Preliminary plan of the western suburb at Amara West (based on a ma created by Paolo del Vesco)

Preliminary plan of the western suburb at Amara West (based on a map created by Paolo del Vesco)

Initial consideration of the incomplete map of this area suggests some houses were built into spaces left between the first buildings constructed here – was this neighbourhood also becoming more densely populated, and perhaps cramped?
Alongside all this, the excavation of these houses will provide a dataset of objects, ceramics and samples relating to plant and animal use, belief and ritual, technology (cooking, building, making objects) that will provide a nice counterpart to that from inside the walled town. Another set of questions surrounds how the town this part of the town was abandoned – were people living next to vacant or partly derelict houses?

Agnieszka and workmen commence excavation in 'front room' of house E11.1

Agnieszka and workmen commence excavation in ‘front room’ of house E11.1

Over the next 7 weeks, Mat Dalton will finish excavation of house D12.7; immediately to the north lies house D12.8/E11.1 (or is it two houses?), being explored by Matt Williams and Agnieszka Trambowicz. To the southeast, David Fallon has started work in D12.2, a medium sized house seemingly squeezed between villa D12.5 and the house to the west. Across the street, Manuela Lehmann and Sarah Hitchens are excavating a much larger house (D11.1), that seems unique at Amara West, being surrounded by a perimeter wall. Anna Stevens will join us soon to work in a small three-roomed house (D11.2), that seems much more like those in the walled town.

These excavations will further populate our understanding of the variety of ancient life in the Nile Valley just over 3000 years ago, helping to move us away from characterising whole towns as populated by individuals living identical lives – even when no texts survive.

Alongside regular updates on the blog, follow the season on Twitter: @NealSpencer_BM and #amarawest

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Uncategorized

Amara West 2015: a first glimpse of site

 Carrying equipment to site
Neal Spencer, Keeper of Ancient Egypt and Sudan, British Museum

First view of site
This was our first view of Amara West since March last year: hazy with airborne sand, it was reassuring to see no signs of looting.

Equipment to site
Carrying equipment – wheelbarrows, boxes of tools, surveying instruments – across the site, framed by an arch of the new visitor centre and police post.

Barrows in wait
We return at 7am tomorrow to start excavations in the ancient town: all but the dark green barrow await the addition of tires (hopefully re-inflated).

Alongside regular updates on the blog, follow the season on Twitter: @NealSpencer_BM and #amarawest

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Filed under: Amara West 2015

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