Neal Spencer, British Museum
The archaeologist now has a range of methods which can ‘predict’ what will be found in excavation and which help inform the areas to investigate. Our magnetometry survey was the most informative, but surface topography, artefact scatter, parts of walls visible on the surface, and our (assumed) familiarity with the site and its buildings also help. This last aspect includes assumptions we make about the depth of architecture beneath the current surface, and what will be found in different parts of houses.
So, to house E13.5. We were pretty confident we had the complete plan of this, mid-sized five-roomed house, simply by brushing to reveal the tops of the walls. All went to plan in week one: nicely preserved floors, a mastaba-bench against one wall, a staircase, and the bonus of re-used inscribed stonework in three of the doorways.
The front room contained a perfectly preserved hearth, and a pot-stand set up in one corner, still standing where it had been placed around 1100 BC.
But something was missing: where were the ovens? Nearly every house we have excavated at Amara West features circular ovens, made of clay and between 30 and 60 cm in diameter. Often, we find several set up against the wall of a small room.
These ovens would have been ideal for cooking bread, much like a traditional tandoori bread oven. The thick ash deposits in and around the ovens provide rich potential for archaeobotanical research. Egyptologists also believe such ovens had multiple functions – for example to fire small faience objects.
The lack of ovens in E13.5 prompted us to extend our investigations east of the house, as a small eroded wall segment in the east wall of the front room of the house hinted at the location of a blocked doorway or possibly a step. Where did this lead?
Shadia Abdu Rabo set a small team of workmen to brush back the surface, and soon revealed a long rectangular room. The rather thin outer wall suggests this may have been a courtyard along the east side of the house. Further excavation revealed an oven, then another one, and yet another… we have now uncovered the remains of seven in this one room.
Someone was doing a lot of cooking here: but was it for one household? The organisation of food production in New Kingdom Egypt has been studied through textual sources, and especially the excavations at Tell el-Amarna. These houses at Amara West offer an opportunity to investigate how a neighbourhood within an Egyptian town in conquered Nubia organised food processing and supply.
Such research potential prompted another change of plan: we will delay our excavation beneath house E13.5 – where we hope to find earlier phase architecture – as the new oven courtyard may well have served more than house E13.5. The unexcavated building to the north, newly christened E13.16, also has a door onto the space with all the ovens.
Sarah Doherty and workmen started clearing surface deposits from this building on Sunday morning….
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