Neal Spencer, British Museum
Excavating across three main areas at Amara West – the cemetery, inside the northwest part of the walled town, and in the western suburb beyond the walls – it is villa D12.5 that has been most reluctant to divulge its form and purpose, despite some intriguing finds. Vera Michel and Rizwan Safir have been supervising a team of workmen for three weeks now, but the damage to the southern end of the building has resulted in a large area that is much like a 20 metres-wide sandpit. Men, shovels and wheelbarrows can work for hours and then days, removing considerable amounts of windblown sand, yet a quick glance wrongly suggests not much has changed!
The last few days have seen us return to the front of the building, where more architecture and features appear daily. Vera revealed and then recorded a large expanse of collapsed brickwork, still preserving the coursing of the original wall. Excavation of the windblown sand under it led to another layer of rubble.
The rubble here was very different, with fragments bearing the impressions of plants and finely woven matts: the telltale signs of a collapsed roof. Our houses had roofs built with beams and poles, overlaid with matts and then covered in mud; all that survives after three millennia is the mud.
The ‘upside down’ stratigraphy: collapsed roof under collapsed walls, indicates something of how the building fell into ruin. The roof must have collapsed first, probably shortly after abandonment: maybe the valuable wooden beams and poles were taken for use elsewhere. After an interval in which sand accumulated over the roof rubble, the wall then collapsed over the top, probably undermined by wind erosion near its base. While buildings can slowly crumble and decay, there must have been quite sudden episodes: the energy in these collapses is evident from how the rubble often tumbles through doorways, spreading across the floor.
Rizwan has just started clearing two rooms inside the front door: one contains a shallow circular hearth, perhaps used for cooking and warmth. We are all awaiting, with a sense of inevitability, the appearance of ovens….
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